In 1965 Italian director Gillo Pontecorvo made this film tracing the efforts
of the native population in Algeria, the 2nd largest nation in Africa, to
rise up and liberate themselves after their French colonialist masters
reneged on a promise to cut them loose. As much for its style as its
even-handedness, his film raised a stir, received recognition, honors and
condemnation, and went on to influence cinematic story-telling technique.
Its re-creation of how terrorist movements grow and how they might be
eliminated is, apparently, applicable enough to the current resistance in
Iraq for the Pentagon to screen it privately for its military personnel.
Because of that relevance, new prints from the original negative have been
struck for theatrical re-release that we might all judge and reconsider its
instructions and its messages. One of these is that the battle for hearts
and minds can't be won so easily by a rebellious people when sympathetic
observers can taste the malice behind the deaths they cause, no matter what
the political context.
Starting the story at a point close to its conclusion, French military
interrogators apply pressure to an old Algerian nationalist until he reveals
the hiding place of the last remaining guerrilla leader, Ali La Pointe
(Brahim Haggiag). When his hideout is efficiently surrounded by the troops,
La Pointe hides in a blind behind a wall, which is quickly discovered. He's
given a choice to come out or die. As he contemplates his options, we
flashback three years, to the origin of the conflict, when the
National Liberation Front, the NLF (aka, FLN), issues a proclamation calling
on the masess to unite in a struggle for independence.
Soon thereafter, the strutting, heroic figure of French Colonel Mathieu (Jean
Martin), a character based on Jacques Massu, the actual commander of the
French forces, arrives with his elite force of French paratroopers to deal
with the problem. In a strategy virtually paralleling the one that Colonel
James Hickey used in Iraq to find Saddam Hussein by tracing through his inner
circle, Mathieu outlines for his troops the cleverly compartmentalized
structure of the Algerian NLF's command and charges his men to find the foot
soldiers of the rebellion. Through coercion and torture, they will force
these lower level terrorists to identify the leader of their cell and his
safe house location amidst the native sympathizers.
In this way, the French troops gradually expose the hierarchy of tactical
cells and eliminate them one by one, though not without some loss to
themselves. When the story leads back to the last of them, La Pointe chooses
death over surrender and the Battle of Algiers ends. While this squashing of
a persistent enemy force represented a victory for the French, the cause of
the revolution didn't die. The complaints of inequality and suppression
remained, and the roots of rebellion sprouted again three years later
leading, finally, to Algeria's independence in 1962.
Pontecorvo's characters are political figures first and foremost. While they
tend to be two-dimensional archetypes, they serve to concentrate our interest
and arouse complex sympathies. The balance of viewpoints is the most
stunning accomplishment of Pontevorvo's film, elevating its effect far more
than if it had told the story from only one side.
The film retains impact from high-paced cutting, non-pro actors culled from
the environment, extraordinary coverage in the streets, back alleys and safe
houses of Algiers' Casbah, and details of the grass roots movement as it
grows into a well organized instrument of mortal danger. These elements give
the scripted production the aura of a documentary and the sense of historical
accuracy despite some awkward formality in the characterizations. The tense
score was composed by Ennio Morricone.
Underlying the film's insights is the fact that some of the actors were
actually involved in the Algerian struggle, most notably, producer Yacef
Saadi's part of El-hadi Jaffar, which is based on his real-life role as a
general in the NLF. It was Saadi's original treatment for the film --
written in an Algerian jail after capture by the French -- which provided the
basis for Pontecorvo's and co-writer Franco Solinas' screenplay. The tense
score was composed by Ennio Morricone.
This lesson in modern warfare is not only instructive to the Pentagon's
military but is of considerable value to any generation's fascination with
law, order, anarchic behavior and classic story-telling technique.
~~ The Filmiliar Cineaste